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文房四宝清代砚台

文房四宝清代砚台

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文房四宝清代砚台
朗利德
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  • 地  区:
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文房四宝中的砚台不单是文具,更是集雕刻、绘画于一身的精美工艺品,砚台经历了康熙、乾隆、嘉庆、道光、光绪几个重要发展时期,呈现不同特点。砚台的艺术价值远远超过其使用价值,成为文人墨客收藏对象,爱砚者最爱清代砚台。笔墨纸砚是中国传统的文房四宝,我以为砚台最有资格端端正正地稳坐在“不朽”二字上,她的寿命与石头同在,经过漫长的历史,砚台已不再是单纯的文具,而成为集雕刻、绘画于一身的精美工艺品,砚台的艺术价值逐渐超越了其使用价值,成为文人墨客收藏的对象。清代的制砚产业更加壮大,砚材更加丰富,纹饰内容更加广泛,雕刻手法更加灵活细致,款式上继承历代优点,为爱砚者最爱。清代砚台的材质与种类砚台历经秦汉、魏晋、至唐代起,各地相继发现适合制砚的石料,开始以石为主的砚台制作。其中采用广东端州的端石、安徽歙州的歙石及甘肃临洮的洮河石制的砚台,被分别称作端砚、歙砚、洮砚。史书将端、歙、临洮砚称作三大名砚。中国的砚史发展到清代,进入了全盛时期,如同其他工艺美术品一样达到了空前的繁荣,砚的取材更为丰富。清末,又将山西的澄泥砚与端、歙、洮并列为中国四大名砚。所用砚材除四大名砚石材,还出现了水晶、漆砂、翡翠、象牙、玻璃等名贵材质。清朝,端砚的开采量加大,并且不断有新的砚坑被发现,端砚砚坑的数量由清初的十一个增加至七十余个,清初高兆《端溪砚石考》云:“峡(羚羊峡)石矾凡十一,”到了道光年间,《宝砚堂砚辨》的作者何传瑶说:“夫端溪之老坑止一,而杂坑不下七十种,即质色甚类老坑者,亦不下十数种。”这些新发现的砚坑,包括了端石三大坑之一的麻子坑。端砚石质的主要特点是:细腻幼嫩致密、坚实,素有“发墨不损毫,”“久用锋芒不退”之誉。其硬度为摩氏3.5,适合雕刻。

 

The inkstones in the four treasures of study are not only stationery, but also exquisite handicrafts integrating carving and painting. Inkstones have experienced several important development periods of Kangxi, Qianlong, Jiaqing, Daoguang and Guangxu, showing different characteristics. The artistic value of inkstone far exceeds its use value. It has become the collection object of scholars and scholars. Those who love inkstone most love inkstone in the Qing Dynasty. Pen, ink, paper and inkstone are the four treasures of Chinese traditional study. I think inkstone is the most qualified to sit on the word "Immortality". Its life span is the same as that of stone. After a long history, inkstone is no longer a simple stationery, but a beautiful handicraft integrating sculpture and painting. The artistic value of inkstone gradually exceeds its use value, It has become the object of collection for writers and writers. In the Qing Dynasty, the inkstone industry grew stronger, the inkstone materials were richer, the decorative content was more extensive, the carving techniques were more flexible and meticulous, and the style inherited the advantages of previous dynasties, which was the favorite of those who love inkstones. Materials and types of inkstones in the Qing Dynasty inkstones went through the Qin and Han Dynasties, the Wei and Jin Dynasties and the Tang Dynasty. Stones suitable for making inkstones were found one after another, and inkstones based on stones began to be made. Among them, the inkstones made of Duan stone in Duanzhou, Guangdong, she stone in Shezhou, Anhui and Tao river stone in Lintao, Gansu are called Duan inkstone, She inkstone and Tao inkstone respectively. History books call Duan, she and Lintao inkstones three famous inkstones. The history of Chinese inkstone developed to the Qing Dynasty and entered its heyday. Like other arts and crafts, it achieved unprecedented prosperity, and the materials of inkstone are more abundant. In the late Qing Dynasty, Chengni inkstone in Shanxi was listed as one of the four famous inkstones in China together with Duan, she and Tao. In addition to the four famous inkstone materials, there are also precious materials such as crystal, lacquer sand, emerald, ivory and glass. In the Qing Dynasty, the mining volume of Duan Inkstone increased, and new inkstone pits were constantly discovered. The number of Duan Inkstone pits increased from 11 in the early Qing Dynasty to more than 70. Gao Zhao's examination of Duanxi inkstone in the early Qing Dynasty said: "the stone Fanfan in Lingyang Gorge (Lingyang Gorge)" in the Daoguang period, he Chuanyao, the author of baoyantang inkstone discrimination, said: "There are only one old pit in Fu Duan River, and there are no less than 70 kinds of miscellaneous pits, that is, there are no less than ten kinds of old pits with very similar quality and color." these newly discovered inkstone pits include Mazi pit, one of the three pits of Duanshi. The main characteristics of Duan inkstone are: delicate, tender, dense and solid. It is known as "no loss of ink and no retreat of edge after long use". Its hardness is Mohs 3.5, which is suitable for carving.

 

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