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大清康熙珐琅彩

大清康熙珐琅彩

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大清康熙珐琅彩
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  • 经营时间:
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  • 展厅面积:
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  • 地  区:
    四川-成都-其他
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创作年代 明清
作品分类 陶瓷紫砂- 瓷器-清代 品种 珐琅彩 器型
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珐琅器是13世纪由陆路传入中国,在明代就有大量的掐丝珐琅产品出现。而一种叫做铜胎画珐琅的器物,则是由欧洲传教士或商人在清朝康熙年间从海上带 入中国的。康熙皇帝对这些从遥远的法兰西运来的精美鲜亮的铜胎画珐琅器物非常喜爱。他邀请法国的画珐琅艺人进入内廷造办处,并要求他们传授画珐琅的技艺。 意大利耶稣会士郎世宁于康熙五十四年来中国时就携带一批画珐琅器物作为赠礼。由于康熙时期铜料紧缺,康熙要求研制以瓷胎代替铜胎的画珐琅器。这项革新于康 熙三十五年初试成功。雍正七年,另一项革新得以完成,那就是雍正时期研制出了中国自己的珐琅彩料,并起用了顶尖的宫廷画师和文人官吏绘图题诗。这使得雍正 一朝的珐琅瓷器无论在瓷胎的制造和色彩的调和以及构图的艺术上都达到顶峰。乾隆时期,珐琅颜料的研制更加细致多样,纹饰图样和器物形制更加丰富,制作工艺 更加精巧别致。乾隆以后,则没有了严格意义的珐琅彩瓷器的宫廷制作。大体上讲,康、雍、乾三代的珐琅彩瓷器都具有鲜明的特点,非常明晰地反映了珐琅彩瓷器在中国的兴起、发展到式微的过程。

康熙时期的珐琅彩瓷器为素胎,所以必须用黄、胭脂红等作地子,然后再绘制纹样。其画法也是从铜胎画珐琅移植而来。雍正时期则解决了高度白色釉上着色 绘画的问题,并有了更细腻多样的国产珐琅颜料,造型雅致,构图清丽,极具艺术感。乾隆则是将珐琅彩颜色发展到十几种,并明显受西方“洛可可”艺术风格的影 响,器物造型多种多样,纹饰构图繁复华美,绘制工艺极尽巧妙。康雍乾三朝珐琅瓷器的共同点就是工艺极其精致,颜色沉着鲜亮,造型规整疏朗。

Enamel ware was introduced into China by land in the 13th century, and a large number of wire pinching enamel products appeared in the Ming Dynasty. One of the objects called bronze enamel was brought into China by European missionaries or merchants from the sea during the reign of Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty. Emperor Kangxi was very fond of these exquisite and bright enamel objects with copper body paintings, which were transported from far away France. He invited French enamel painters to come to the inner court office and asked them to teach them the art of enamel painting. When he came to China in the 54th year of the reign of Emperor Kangxi, he brought a batch of enamel paintings as gifts. Due to the shortage of copper materials in Kangxi period, Kangxi required the development of enamel painting utensils with porcelain body instead of copper body. This innovation was successfully tried in the 35th year of Kangxi. In the seventh year of Yongzheng, another innovation was completed, that is, during the Yongzheng period, China developed its own enamel materials, and used top court painters and literati officials to write poems. This made the enamel porcelain of Yongzheng Dynasty reach the peak in the manufacture of porcelain body, the harmony of color and the art of composition. During the Qianlong period, the development of enamel pigments was more meticulous and diverse, the decorative patterns and shapes of utensils were more abundant, and the production process was more exquisite and unique. After Qianlong, there was no royal production of enamel porcelain in the strict sense. Generally speaking, the enamel porcelains of Kang, Yong and Qian dynasties have distinctive characteristics, which clearly reflects the rise, development and decline of enamel porcelains in China.

The enamel porcelain of Kangxi period was plain, so it was necessary to use yellow and rouge as the ground, and then draw patterns. Its painting method is also transplanted from the enamel of copper body painting. In Yongzheng period, the problem of highly white overglaze painting was solved, and more exquisite and diverse domestic enamel pigments were produced, with elegant shape, beautiful composition and artistic sense. Qianlong developed more than ten kinds of enamel colors, and was obviously influenced by the western "Rococo" artistic style. The shapes of the utensils were various, the patterns were complex and beautiful, and the drawing process was extremely ingenious. The common feature of the enamel porcelain of Kang, Yong and Qian dynasties is that the craft is extremely exquisite, the color is calm and bright, and the shape is regular and sparse.

 

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