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清乾隆御制青铜器摆件一组

清乾隆御制青铜器摆件一组

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清乾隆御制青铜器摆件一组

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精品推荐;青铜器的制造在我国有着源远流长的的历史。古代“国之大事,在祭与戎”, 进行祭祀、征讨等国家大事需要大量的青铜器。先秦青铜器不仅与我国的历史、冶金、文字都有着重要的联系,还为工艺美术的发展奠定了基础。仿古青铜器的出现是人们出于复古宣传传统礼教之目的,或出于对古代文化的尊重与爱好。仿造先秦青铜器的历史大约可以追溯至宋代,当时金石学兴起,公私以收藏商周青铜器为乐事,宫廷曾据内府所藏商周青铜礼乐器大量仿制,以为郊庙之用。
乾隆朝是制作仿古铜器的鼎盛期,但无论在用途上,还是性质上,清代铜器与商周时期的青铜器都是截然不同的。商周时期,青铜器是贵族世家的标志,贵族为了弘扬祖德、刻纪功烈,铸造铜器并记录在铭文中。礼器使用的多寡,更是体现贵族等级制度上下尊卑的象征。到了清代,铜器已失去了这些意义,它只不过是生活中的一种器皿,或是人们手中赏玩的艺术品。
清乾隆时期宫中先后设立了铜作和炉作,大量制造各种铜器,以为内廷陈设、佛堂供奉、太庙郊坛等使用。尤以乾隆朝宫廷仿古器最盛,这当然与乾隆帝博雅好古的性格与情怀有关。当时制作的仿古铜器造型与原器相似,如鼎、觚、爵、壶、钟等。纹饰则有继承也有创新,器物上常见的纹饰有龙纹、卷云纹、浪花纹、花卉纹、变形兽面纹、变形夔纹、回纹,这些纹饰有的在商周青铜器上尚未出现,有的图形发生了一定的变化。器物上常铸有“大清乾隆年制”铭文。铜器的铸造方法仍然沿袭古代的失蜡法。到了清代,这一铸造技艺已达炉火纯青,能够制作出各种复杂的造型,而且形体规范,端庄精致。装饰方法亦多种多样,有錾刻、镂空、烧古、鎏金银、嵌金银丝、洒金等,在继承的同时又力求发展。在器物的皮色方面更是变化多端,造办处档案记载的就有石青斑、石绿斑、朱砂斑、猪肝色、铜绿色、茶叶末色、翡翠绿、蟹壳青及鳝鱼黄等。这些生动的色泽柔和温润,宝色内涵,珠光外显。从中可以领略清代宫廷铜器的精美考究,以及古意盎然的韵味。
清代宫廷铸造仿古铜器的风格与明代近似,即外形有商周铜器部分特征,但往往对局部加以多方面的改造,如上述清仿古方鼎,饕餮纹作蝴蝶状,口颈下夔纹口、身皆臆作,底纹呆扳无变化,扁足形制与其上纹饰亦均不合古制,较典型地体现了这一时期仿古器的风格与水平。 明清两代的仿古铜器,有几种常见而形制较特殊的器型,如百环尊,出戟大尊等。
清代早期。研究青铜器铭文已形成风气,也促进了仿古铜器的生产。清代仿古铜器分宫廷仿和民间仿两种。乾隆年间,宫廷设立了内务府造办处。设有铜器作,专门仿制古铜器。宫廷制作仿古铜器是为了陈设,民间制作仿古铜器是为了当假古董卖,故风格有所不同。宫廷仿古铜器大多有依据,故器形与原器大致相似。由于制器是用于宫廷陈设,故也会投帝王之好而做一些改动。例如北京故宫藏清代仿古扁足方鼎。腹上饰以兽面纹,但兽面及兽身都变了形。另外,乾隆帝嗜好镶嵌、鎏金之器,故内务府造办处也大量制作鎏金器。如故宫藏乾隆年间仿古鸟车尊,便是造办处的精心之作,做工精美要超过宋代铜器。
清代仿古铜器一般采用分铸法,即将器物各部分分别铸出,然后焊接,焊接前会将各部分的铸痕摩平,故清仿器上没有铸痕却有焊接之痕,不见垫片却有补痕。三代青铜器的垫片是合范时放上去的,摆放有一定的规律,而仿器的补痕是铸造时铜液未流到或因气孔而造成凹缺,一般用焊锡来弥补,故补痕的分布是没有规律的。若把作旧的黑地子或浮锈去掉,便可看出焊锡所补的痕迹。清代仿古铜所用铜料为黄铜。质色泛黄,与黄金色相近,分量较重,常做成黑地子再后打蜡,冒充“熟坑”器。
自清代乾隆、嘉庆年间开始,到同治,光绪年间,金石学家极为重视青铜器铭文。所以,是否有铭文或铭文的长短:都成为一件青铜器是否能卖好价钱的重要因素,所以也诱发了古铜器作伪铭的风气。在真器上增添铭文便是此期特点。尤以西安仿古铜器为甚。清咸丰二年(1852年)刊刻的《长安•获古编}卷二记载了一则故事:西安知县刘喜海喜欢研究金文。凡带铭文的古铜器均加价收买,而无铭文之器却一件不收。于是,西安的古董商便设法在无铭的真器上錾刻伪字,投刘氏之所好。由此可知至少从清代咸丰年间起,增刻伪铭便成了西安古铜器行的一大特色。曾见有刻廿六年诏的铜方斗,整体是焊接的,铭文刻得很差。
另外,山东潍县是清代后期以来仿古铜器的著名产地,特点是以仿制带铭文的青铜重器为主。潍县有叫胥伦的人善做仿古铜器。结识了潍县著名的金石收藏家陈介琪,使在陈介琪的指导下,开始仿制陈介琪家藏的三代彝器,仿得惟妙椎肖。一时成为名品。潍县古铜器的作旧,是用盐酸浸泡后埋入黄土中,再盖上湿麻袋让器表生出绿锈红锈,然后打蜡,成为“熟坑”。还有以錾刘花,铭见长的范寿轩;有擅刻细笔造铭文,又能翻砂制镜范的王荩臣和他的儿子王海等十几位。故宫藏有半片残鼎。鼎内有铭51字。就是王海仿西周后期克鼎刻的,錾工甚精。若不是眼力好的专家也很难辨出真伪。
清代是我国历史上文化艺术发展的一个重要时期,各种类别与形制的器物枚不胜举,争奇斗艳,堪称大观.
The manufacture of bronzes has a long history in China. Ancient "national events, in sacrifice and military service", sacrifice, conscription and other national events need a large number of bronzes. Pre-Qin bronzes not only have important connections with China's history, metallurgy and writing, but also lay a foundation for the development of Arts and crafts. The appearance of antique bronzes is for the purpose of propaganda of traditional etiquette and religion, or for the respect and hobby of ancient culture. The history of imitating the bronzes of the pre-Qin period can be traced back to the Song Dynasty. At that time, epigraphy was rising. The public and private took the bronze instruments of the Shang and Zhou Dynasties as their music activities. The court once imitated a large number of the bronze ritual instruments of the Shang and Zhou Dynasties collected by the inner Palace for the use of suburban temples.
The Qianlong Dynasty was the heyday of making antique bronzes, but the bronzes of the Qing Dynasty were quite different from those of the Shang and Zhou Dynasties in both use and nature. During the Shang and Zhou Dynasties, bronze ware was the symbol of noble family. In order to carry forward Zude and inscriptions, nobles cast bronze ware and recorded it in inscriptions. The number of ceremonial utensils used is a symbol of the superiority and inferiority of the aristocratic hierarchy. By the Qing Dynasty, bronze ware had lost these meanings. It was only a kind of vessel in life, or a work of art that people enjoyed in their hands.
During the Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty, bronze wares and stoves were successively set up in the palace, and various kinds of bronze wares were manufactured in large quantities for the use of inner court furnishings, Buddhist halls and suburban altars of Taimiao. Especially in the Qianlong Dynasty, antique wares are the most popular, which is of course related to the Qianlong Emperor's character and feelings of being elegant and ancient. The antique bronze wares made at that time resembled the original wares in shape, such as the tripod, hairpin, jug, pot, bell and so on. There are inheritance and innovation in decoration. Common decorations on utensils include dragon pattern, curly moire pattern, wave pattern, flower pattern, deformed animal face pattern, deformed ridge pattern and palindrome pattern. Some of these decorations have not yet appeared on Shang and Zhou bronzes, and some patterns have changed to some extent. The inscription of "Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty" is often cast on the utensils. The casting method of bronze ware still follows the ancient wax-free method. By the Qing Dynasty, this casting technology had reached a pure green, can produce a variety of complex shapes, and the body is standardized, dignified and delicate. There are also various decoration methods, such as carving, hollowing out, burning antiquity, gold and silver, inlaying gold and silver silk, sprinkling gold, etc. While inheriting, they strive to develop. In terms of the skin color of utensils, there are many changes, such as stone green spot, stone green spot, cinnabar spot, pig liver color, copper green, tea final color, emerald green, crab shell green and eel yellow. These vivid colors are soft and moist, precious and pearlescent. From it, we can appreciate the exquisite and elegant bronze wares of the Qing Dynasty, and the ancient flavor.
The style of ancient imitation bronze casting in Qing Dynasty is similar to that in Ming Dynasty, i.e. the shape of Shang and Zhou bronze ware has some characteristics, but the part is often reformed in many ways. For example, the square tripod of Qing Dynasty imitates ancient wares, the glutton pattern is butterfly-shaped, the mouth and body under the neck are all fabricated, the bottom pattern remains unchanged, and the flat foot shape and its upper pattern are not ancient, which typically reflects the style of ancient imitation wares in this period. Case and level. The antique bronze wares of Ming and Qing dynasties have several common and special shapes, such as Baihuan Zun and Baihuan Dazun.
Early Qing Dynasty. The study of bronze inscriptions has formed a trend and promoted the production of antique bronzes. There are two kinds of antique bronzes in Qing Dynasty, one is imperial imitation and the other is folk imitation. During the reign of Qianlong, the court set up the Office of the Interior Office. There are bronze wares specially imitating ancient bronze wares. The imperial court makes antique bronzes for display, while the folk makes antique bronzes for sale as counterfeit antiques, so their styles are different. Palace antique bronze wares are mostly based on the shape of the original wares is roughly similar. Because the utensils are used for court furnishings, they will also make some changes for the good of the emperor. For example, the Palace Museum in Beijing has a quasi-ancient flat-footed square tripod in the Qing Dynasty. The abdomen is decorated with animal face pattern, but the animal face and body have changed shape. In addition, Emperor Qianlong preferred mosaic and gold-plating implements, so the Office of Internal Affairs also made a large number of gold-plating implements. For example, the Palace Museum Tibeted the antique Bird Car Respect during the Qianlong reign, which was the elaborate work of the building office. Its exquisite workmanship surpassed the bronze wares of the Song Dynasty.
In Qing Dynasty, antique bronze wares were usually cast separately, and then welded. Before welding, the casting marks of each part would be smoothed. Therefore, there were no casting marks but welding marks on the antique bronze wares, and there were no gaskets but repair marks. The gaskets of the three generations of bronze wares are put up when they are in conformity with the standard, and there are certain regularities in their placement. The filling marks of the imitation wares are caused by the absence of copper liquid flowing into the casting process or by the holes. Generally, the filling marks are made up by soldering tin, so the distribution of the filling marks is irregular. If the old black ground or floating rust is removed, the remedy marks of solder can be seen. The copper material used in antique copper in Qing Dynasty is brass. It is yellowish in color, similar to golden in color and heavy in weight. It is often made into black ground and waxed afterwards, pretending to be a "ripe pit" device.
From the reign of Qianlong and Jiaqing in the Qing Dynasty, to the reign of Tongzhi and Guangxu, epigraphists attached great importance to bronze inscriptions. Therefore, whether there is an inscription or the length of the inscription: it has become an important factor whether a bronze can sell at a good price, so it also induces the trend of making false inscriptions on ancient bronzes. This period is characterized by the addition of inscriptions on real objects. Especially Xi'an antique bronzes. Volume 2 of Chang'an Huogu Edition, published in 1852 in Xianfeng, Qing Dynasty, records a story: Liu Xihai, Zhixian County, Xi'an, likes to study bronze inscriptions. Ancient bronzes with inscriptions are bought at a higher price, but none without inscriptions. Therefore, the antique dealers in Xi'an managed to carve pseudo-characters on the unmarked authentic implements and put them in Liu's favor. From this we can see that at least since the Xianfeng period of the Qing Dynasty, adding false inscriptions has become a major feature of the ancient bronze wares in Xi'an. The brass square bucket engraved with the edict of 26 years was welded as a whole and the inscription was badly engraved.
In addition, Weixian County, Shandong Province, is a famous producer of antique bronze wares since the late Qing Dynasty, characterized by the imitation of heavy bronze wares with inscriptions. There are people in Weixian called Xulun who are good at making antique bronzes. Having met Chen Jieqi, a famous collector of gold and stone in Weixian, under Chen Jieqi's guidance, he began to imitate the three generations of Yi wares collected by Chen Jieqi and imitate the vivid vertebral figures. It became a famous product for a while. The old bronze wares in Weixian County are immersed in Loess after being soaked in hydrochloric acid, covered with wet hemp bags to produce green rust and rust on the surface of the wares, and then waxed to become "ripe pits". There are also Fan Shouxuan, who is good at inscribing Liu Hua and inscribing. There are more than a dozen Wang Zhichen, who is good at making inscriptions with fine brushwork, and can make mirror models with sand dusting, and his son Wang Hai. Half of the remnant tripod is hidden in the Palace Museum. There are 51 inscriptions in the tripod. It was Wang Hai who imitated Keding carving in the late Western Zhou Dynasty. He was very skilled in Qigong. It's hard to tell the truth from the truth without a good eyesight expert.
The Qing Dynasty is an important period in the development of culture and art in our country's history. There are numerous kinds and shapes of utensils, which can be regarded as spectacular.

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